Gem Treatment Methods

At EmeraldandGemstones we consider and buy gemstones that have been treated only by accepted and approved gemstone enhancement methods.  If a gemstone in our stock  is enhanced it has been done so according to accepted world wide gemological standards.

Code:  E    = Routinely Enhanced Gem
RE = Rarely Enhanced/No Known Enhancement 
NE = No Enhancement



Fracture Filling:  In gemstones where tiny surface reaching fractures and fissures are common, they can be filled to diminish their appearance and help strengthen the stone.  Emeralds are an example of such a stone.  Emeralds are most often treated with natural oils. If necessary, the stone can be re-oiled by the owner to keep up its appearance. This method of treatment, if done properly, does not diminish the value of the stone. Epoxy resins can also be used to fill fractures, however oiling Emeralds and other like gems is the preferred practice.

Heat:   One of the most common treatment practices is to heat gemstones to alter or enhance their color.  This is a permanent process.  Certain gemstones are routinely heat treated such as: Aquamarine, Topaz, Sapphire, Tanzanite, Green Tourmaline and Zircon.  This treatment does not in any way diminish the value of the gem.

Irradiation:  Radiation can be used to alter or enhance the color of a gemstone.  Since this process is permanent and the results are stable, it is a widely accepted practice.  Gems which can be irradiated include: colored Diamonds, Quartz, Tanzanite, Tourmaline, Kunzite, Yellow Beryl, and a few others.

Diffusion:  Diffusion treatment is most often done to colorless or very light Sapphires to turn them blue.  Chemicals are applied to the surface of the gem, which is then heated for a prolonged period of time.  The result is a permanent color, but only on the surface of the gemstone.  The center remains colorless, and the color can be scratched off.  This practice is relatively new and not widely accepted within the trade.

Dye:   Gems which have small surface cracks are sometimes filled with dye in the form of colored oil and epoxy.  Dye can be used on certain stones such as Emerald and Ruby to enhance color.  Some stones, such as Lapis and Chalcedony are naturally porous and absorb dye well.  In fact “Black Onyx” rarely occurs naturally, most times it is dyed Chalcedony.

Coating:  Some gemstones can be coated with wax or lacquer to enhance their smooth, flawless appearance.  Another method of coating a stone is with a foil backing.  Although it is relatively uncommon, gemstone settings can be lined with foil (sometimes colored) to add sparkle and alter or enhance color.  These practices are considered deceptive and the customer should be wary of them.

Why Emerald is So Special ?

For thousands of years Emeralds have been considered some of the most beautiful and valuable gems in existence. In many instances their value can exceed the value of a diamond of comparable carat weight. Emeralds are rare and precious gems of the beryl family, distinguished by their rich green color. The largest quantities of Emeralds are found in Brazil, Colombia and East Africa.

At our experienced gemologists carefully grade each Brazilian Emerald. Upon extraction from the mines in the state of Bahia, Brazil and the region of Minas Gerais, each gem is carefully cut, polished and calibrated. All stones arrive to our customers ready to be set in a piece of fine jewelry.

In addition to our high quality Brazilian Emeralds, we also offer other precious and semi-precious gemstones. These include Amethyst, Ametrine, Aquamarine, Citrine, Iolite, Peridot, Topaz, Tourmaline and more.

Emerald and Gemstones is a world-wide purveyor of the finest quality Brazilian Emeralds, precious and semi-precious gemstones. We offer only the highest quality merchandise. In business since 1981, our family owned and operated company began by offering gemstones from the mines of Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brazil, to the public at wholesale prices. We are committed to quality, excellence and customer satisfaction.

All of our gemstones are natural; none are synthetic.

In addition to the gem color grading information below, learn more about gem tone, clarity, treatment methods, cuts, and some gem conventions .

Images from:

Gemstone Color Grades

Emerald and Gemstones color scale is based upon our years of experience determining the intensity and purity of the primary color of a particular gemstone and therefore the desirability of the color within the gem.  For example, the greener the Emerald, the lower the number will be on the scale.  Emerald should have brilliant green as its primary color, so if it has around 85% and above primary color, it is graded  #1.  If it is 70-75% green, it is a #2, and so on.

We use this system, in conjunction with using words like “sky blue” to describe Aquamarine or “grass green” to describe Emerald or Peridot.  Although these words sound descriptive, everyone can have their own interpretation of what color “grass green” really is, so it is necessary to also use a more standard form of measure.

A more accurate way to describe color is to assess the hue (color classification i.e. red, blue green, etc., in reference to the spectrum), tone (lightness or darkness), and saturation (color purity). 


1 to 1.75 Outstanding Quality The very best and most sought after example of color in a gemstone.
2 to 2.75 Very High Quality Very high quality.  Precious and desirable.  In most cases you will see 60% to 75% primary color.
3 to 3.75 Very Good Quality This color is widely valued, but has a bit more secondary color.  You should see somewhere between 45% and 60% primary color. 
4 to 4.75 Good Quality This grade is good for setting in fine jewelry for your everyday collection.  You will see between 30% and 45% primary color. 
5 Low Gem Quality This grade is considered low gem quality. Examples of this color are more plentiful and considerably less in price. 

GIA-Type Color Scale

The charts below are based on the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) color stone grading system. The aspects of color with its three variables of tone, hue and saturation of a particular gemstone are listed. Normally you will see this system represented by a set of letters followed by numbers.Visible color and hues are represented by letters. The first number is the tone (lightness/darkness) of a gem. The second number is saturation of color in the particular gem. For example, when you see an Emerald assessed with the letter G indicating the color is green, primary with little or no secondary color or zoning. An assessed tone/saturation number of 7/6 making this jewel a green dark/strong or a G 7/6, is very high quality.




Red Red R
Red-Purple RP
strongly purplish Red stpR
slightly purplish Red slpR
orangy Red oR
Red-Orange RO


Orange Orange O
Orange-Red OR
reddish Orange rO
Red-Orange RO


Yellow Yellow Y
orangy Yellow oY
greenish Yellow gY
Yellow-Green YG


Green Green-Yellow GY
strongly yellowish Green styG
yellowish Green yG
slightly yellowish Green slyG
Green G
very slightly bluish Green vslbG
very strongly bluish Green vstbG
Green-Blue GB


Blue Blue-Green BG
very strongly greenish Blue vstgB
greenish Blue gB
very slightly greenish Blue vslgB
Blue B
grayish Blue gyB
Blue-Violet BV


Violet Violet-Blue VB
bluish Violet bV
Violet V
bluish Purple bP
Purple P
reddish Purple rP
Purple Red PR


How Pearls are Made

Have you ever wondered how pearls are made and sold in very expensive prices in the market? If you would like to know the process entailed in processing them, you can rely on this article. You will gain enough information on how the different forms of pearls are processed.

Natural Pearls

Pearls are formed naturally when some kind of an irritant enters the oyster or mussel. The irritant may be in a form of the following: piece of sand, bacteria, piece of shell or food particle. After that, the process of protection begins and nacre is secreted just around the irritant. Then, it will result to the formation of the pearl, Check types of Pearl here

Sea water Cultured Pearls

The very first step in pearl farming from the sea is the selection of parent oysters to breed the quality oysters. One of the criteria used in the selection involves an interior with an excellent appearance, along with the thick shell.

Actually, it takes up to 2 years for the baby oyster to be matured. It is during this time that they are placed in sea buckets located on the spot where the fresh water enters the sea. By doing this, the oysters will be provided with more nutrients.

Image result for Sea water Cultured Pearls

The next step is inserting the nucleus or base around the area where the pearl develops. A nucleus or base can be made from a freshwater mussel shell also known as pigtoe. The shell is formed just like the shape of a bead. When the pigtoe has been inserted into the Akoya oyster, it has a great potential for success.

After that, the oysters will be set on land for half an hour. This is the right time for them to open their shells which are usually braced open. After that, the nucleus will be surgically placed into the oyster which will then be put back into the sea basket. This basket provides for mobility to protect against temperature variations or predators. Changes in temperature will also affect the pearl’s quality that may lead to the oyster’s death.

The pearl’s growth, through the deposit of necre layers usually takes 2-4 years. The period of cultivation is usually based upon the size and quality of the pearl desired. Then, the pearl will finally be removed from the oyster.

Freshwater Cultured Pearls

The freshwater mussels that have the capability to develop pearls can grow in freshwater lakes or rivers. Just like the saltwater pearls, these freshwater pearls are cultivated in the very same manner. However, the freshwater pearl’s nucleus is made from a so-called mantle tissue.

Image result for Freshwater Cultured Pearls

Saltwater and Fresh Pearls

The so-called keshii pearls can be grown in either saltwater or freshwater oysters. Actually, they are classified as cultured pearls because of the fact that the nucleus inserted is excluded prior to the pearl’s complete formation.
When these pearls have undergone polishing, they can already be sold in the market. These are some of the ways on how pearls are made based from the location where they are found.

Related Post 

Unique Glittering Gems to Suit Your Mood

Most Expensive Gemstones the World Has Seen


Most Expensive Gemstones the World Has Seen

A pebble is just a worthless stone but there are stones that make a mark to the world because of their billion dollar value. These stones are referred to as precious stones that are used as jewelries and adornments. Have you ever wondered what the most expensive gemstones the world has ever seen? If you would like to feed your curiosity and gain knowledge, just read on.

The first on the list is the diamond. There are many types of this precious gem but the blue diamond is the one that stands out. This is a flawless type of diamond that has been successfully sold for £4million at the Sotheby’s auction in Hong Kong making it the most expensive precious stone per carat. After an extreme bidding, the 6.04 carat fetched up to £650,000 per carat. The successful buyer of this diamond was Moussaieff Jewellers in London which is known for its reputation in having rare and expensive gemstones.

Blue diamond is rich and powerful having a dark mystique. These are just some of the best factors that made it on top.

There are also great histories behind this world-class diamond. The world-famous Hope Diamond, which is a 45.52 carat grey-blue gem was passed down through the ages by King Louis XIV of France, Marie Antoinette and Evalyn Walsh McClean. It is now in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C.

Apart from the blue diamond, there are other expensive precious stones. They are as follows:


This is one of the most breath-taking minerals on earth which was discovered in Guatemala and in other Californian sites. The price of the jadeite jewelry was set in November 1997 in Christie’s Hong Kong sale and it was sold for US$9.3 million. Know the worth of Jade


The color of this gem which was found in Madagascar is blue-green. But the clean faceted specimen was found in Sri Lanka. The name of this rare gem was derived from the French historian and explorer Alfred Grandidier. The price of this rare precious gem can reach up to millions.


This is one of the world’s most valuable and expensive gemstones that was named after the Bohemian-Irish gemologist named Edward Taaffe. This stone features a double refraction which is not a natural characteristic of a spinel. The monetary value of this gem is incalculable.


This gemstone is believed to be the rarest mineral on earth which was first discovered in Myanmar by the British mineralogist named Arthur C.D. But when pain rediscovered it in the 1950s, it was named after him. This is one of the most valuable precious stones that the world has ever seen.

These are some of the most expensive gemstones that the world has ever seen. They are the great stones that the earth’s crust has been endowed with. If you would like to collect the most expensive stones, you already know what to collect. But of course, you need to go through several challenges and you need to travel the world as well.

Unique Glittering Gems to Suit Your Mood

The natural stones found in the earth’s crust are known to possess unlimited powers because of their capability to heal and to attract good vibes as well. But apart from these mystical beliefs, these natural stones are also known to suit your mood because of their colors, appearance, shapes and other properties.

If you are looking for the glittering gems that can suit your mood, you can check out the following:


The name of this glittering gem originated from the Amazon River even though no reserves or deposit of amonzonite has been discovered or found there. This stone comes in different colors such as yellow green to blue green. Sometimes, there are also white streaks that can be seen on them. If you are the type of person who easily gets nervous or afraid, this the stone right for you because of the fact that it relieves fear and anxiety. So, always use this gemstone because it will always provide you with the courage you need.


The name of this stone has been derived from Chalkedon which is an ancient town in Greece located in Asia Minor. This glittering stone comes in the following colors: gray, pale blue and yellow. It also comes with a wax like luster. Because of the first-class quality of this stone, it is regarded as one of the best stores in the industry and very expensive as well.

This stone is also believed to possess healing qualities such as healing mental illness, sadness, fear, hysteria and depression. It is also effective in reducing fever and some say that it is also very good to the eyes. If you are the type of person who wants to experience peace and placidity all the time, you need to have this stone.


This is a Greek word that means happy. It was discovered in Achates River which is now known as Drillo River. There are several Agate varieties that you can find such as opaque and transparent. This is a very cooling stone that is said to be very effective in reducing fever, quenching thirst and making the stomach healthy as well. It is also said that the Agate has a power in helping an individual to sleep well and get pleasant dreams as well.

If you have insomnia, this gemstone is the must-have for you.


This precious stone is named after the late Czar Alexander II. With its purple and green light, it is also said to possess a power of absorption. If you are the type of person who does not have enough self-confidence, this is the stone right for you because of the fact that it fights low self-esteem and enhances the disorders of the nervous system as well. It is also known to relieve problems related to pancreas and spleen.

With the help of these glittering gems to suit your mood, you will not just have a perfect accessory for your outfit but a great stone to provide you with the right attitude, mood or character you need as well.

For all wholesale gemstone: